Metonymy in Cognitive Linguistics 4. Metonymy as a Contingent and Defeasible Relation 5. Metonymy and Metaphor 5. The Interaction of Metonymy and Metaphor 5. The Experiential Grounding of Metonymy and Metaphor 6. Metonymy and Speech Act Functions 6. Referential Metonymy 6.
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Predicational Metonymy 6. Propositional Metonymy 6. Illocutionary Metonymy 6. Cross-Functional Metonymies 7. Metonymy, Pragmatic Inferencing, and Discourse Functions 7. Metonymy and Implicature 7. Metonymy and Explicature 7.
Some Discourse-Pragmatic Functions of Metonymy 7. Metonymy and Coreference 8. Metonymy and Grammar 9. Metonymies Across Languages Metonymy and Language Change Metonymy and Semantic Change Metonymy and Grammaticalization Metonymy in Language Production, Comprehension, and Acquisition Areas of Future Research Constraints on Metonymy Metonymic Systems References Notes.
You must wash the dishes. The semantics of finna appear as in 4. Combining these elements produces the correct predictions for finna. First, the proximate futurity of finna falls out of the imperative-like semantics of the performative. Once the speaker has committed herself to acting as if she maximally prefers X, the speaker ought to do X relatively soon after the utterance.
The bay finna blow attested Fourth, this treatment accounts for a sentence like 3 , above, in which denial of the prejacent plausibly creates an odd effect. Finally, the performative nature of finna distinguishes it from verbs like try and gonna as analyzed by other researchers.
Klaus-Uwe Panther and Linda L. Thornburg
These formal constraints, working in conjunction with extra-linguistic predictions about finna, may have important implications for its distribution. Where finna is repeated in a verse, it is never restated with bouta or vice versa. For non-Southern U. Extra-linguistic factors interact with grammatical, semantic constraints to produce variations in speaker usage that index to style and social meaning.
As Bender shows, the perceived social meaning of a variant is, in fact, amplified by its occurrence in a more grammatically marked environment. This accounts for the fact that, while engaged in rapping, AAE-speaking artists may be more likely to use the variant that indexes cultural and ethnic identity, and that furthermore, they may achieve more bang for their buck in creating this ethnically-indexed style when they push the boundaries of grammatical acceptability by using finna with inanimate subjects or more temporally distant predicates as quoted above.
Finally, examples in which speakers flout grammatical constraints for the sake of amplified social meaning offer insight into the actuation problem of semantic change. Diachronic semantic broadening may be rooted in these initial uses that are grammatically marked, yet more socially meaningful. Thus, both synchronically and diachronically, formal semantics accounts of finna are crucially augmented by incorporating social meaning.
Selected Bibliography: Bender, Emily M. Ching, Marvin K.
Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties. The University of Georgia Press. Green, Lisa J.
Yale University, Nov. Imperatives as deontic modal sentences. Seoul International Conference on Linguistics 4. Seoul, Aug. Rabat, Morocco, Mar. University of Washington, Seattle, Feb. Saint John, Aug. Syntactic and semantic conditions on the licensing of NPIs in questions. University of California, Irvine, Feb.
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